Around 10m people throughout England could have seriously depleted vitamin D levels. This is around a fifth of adults and a sixth of children.
Vitamin D is needed by the body, keeping bones and teeth strong whilst supporting a healthy immune system. And it’s after the long winter months that the
body’s reserves are at their lowest.
This much required vitamin is also known as the ‘sunshine vitamin’ as unprotected exposure to sunlight is our main source.
During the winter months (October through April) our bodies are unable to naturally synthesise vitamin D. This is because the sun lies too low in the
sky for us to process it. The only choices you have are to take an expensive trip abroad or to supplement your body – remember, the further you are through
these dark months the more depleted your body will be.
“Due to the lack of sunshine in the UK and the stresses and strains of today’s busy lifestyles it is becoming increasingly difficult to make our own
vitamin D, and winter certainly doesn’t help”, says Andrew Thomas (founder and managing director at BetterYou).
“Many people are suffering the effects of vitamin D deficiency but vitamin D is relatively easy to supplement and the health benefits are clear.”
Cardiff University recently conducted a range of studies which showed that applying vitamin D directly into the mouth, ideally under the tongue or on the
inside of the cheek, means it is absorbed directly through the mucous membrane and into the blood system. Using a liquid spray form achieves this perfectly and is a
fantastic way to supplement vitamin D if you prefer to avoid tablets.
How much vitamin D do you need?
The NHS measures vitamin D in nanomoles per litre (nmol/L). You should aim for levels between 75nmol/L and 150nmol/L, this level is understood to be
optimal for improved health.
It can be difficult getting your kid’s into a back to school mind-set after the summer holidays, so why not prepare them in advance by boosting the mental and physical performance of your little one with a diet packed with vitamins and nutrients and regular exercise over the next 6 weeks.
Follow our checklist to help you give your child a head start of their next school year:
Its summer so make sure your little one gets a small dose of vitamin D courtesy of the sun (all fair-skinned people need is a few minutes of sun on their hands, arms and face every day). However, if the sun isn’t shining, then be sure to include it in their diet through fatty fish, like salmon and tuna, and egg yolks.
Children need calcium to make strong bones, but they can only deposit this calcium until their early 20s. Make sure yours get their three servings a day – a serve is a 250ml glass of milk, a 200g tub of yoghurt or two slice of cheese (40g).
Poor concentration, failing memory, hyperactivity and mood swings can also be an indication of omega 3 (EPA and DHA) deficiency. Our brains need these long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for brain structure and function. Try supplementing your child’s diet with a kid friendly omega 3 supplement.
Iodine deficiency is the world’s most prevalent, yet preventable cause of brain damage and lower IQs according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Make sure your child gets between 90mcg and 120mcg a day. Yoghurt, cow’s milk, eggs, mozzarella cheese and strawberries are excellent sources of iodine.
Magnesium de¬ficiency has been linked with learning difficulties, hyperactivity and insomnia and it’s believed three quarters of children don’t consume enough of this mineral. A half-cup of cooked frozen spinach provides 75mg. You should aim to include 130mg a day.
More Top Tips
Exercise, chill time, and regular, nourishing meals and snacks enhance concentration by banishing energy wobbles.
Friendly foods include fresh fish, vegetables, pulses, whole grain carbohydrates, nuts, and seeds. Water helps too!
Cerebral zappers include sugar, caffeine, soft drinks, junk food, processed foods, excess salt, meat and dairy, and refined or hydrogenated fats and oils (be sure to read the labels!).
We all need sleep to function properly, but while adults need eight hours, children need a minimum of 10 hours shut-eye every night. Encourage regular exercise during the day, and participation in age appropriate extracurricular activities after school which will both result in adequate sleep at night.
Make sure your child is protected against colds with a drink of Manuka Honey and fresh lemon juice in hot water. Echinacea will also support the immune system, prevent infections, and minimise the risk of bronchitis and sinusitis.
If the short, cold, dark winter days leave you feeling lethargic and energy-depleted, then you may be suffering from the winter blues, or its more severe form, seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Other symptoms include carbohydrate cravings, irritability, weight gain and the desire to avoid social situations.
The winter blues are triggered by a lack of sunlight – as the number of daylight hours decreases, levels of ‘feel-good’ hormones in our body begin to drop. The symptoms can appear in late autumn and don’t normally lift until the brighter days in early spring. Fortunately there are simple measures that can help to alleviate these troublesome symptoms.
There is certainly a link between low Vitamin D levels and seasonal affective disorder, although it is unclear whether there is a causal connection. A recent review of existing studies concluded that treating Vitamin D deficiency offers a simple way to improve mental health (1). It would seem sensible for those feeling the effects of the winter blues to test their Vitamin D levels, and to address any deficiency. Sunlight and supplementation are likely the fastest way to address deficiencies, although fatty fish, fortified milk and egg yolks will also help to boost levels.
Other studies have shown that omega-3s appear to help maintain healthy levels of the ‘feel-good’ brain chemicals dopamine and serotonin. Healthy cells membranes, which require good levels of omega-3 fats, are required for the brain to respond to serotonin and dopamine. A recent large double-blind trial of more than 400 adults supports its use in treating depression (2). Based on these results, ensuring adequate omega-3 intake is certainly a sensible approach for those affected by seasonal changes.
Studies investigating the effectiveness of supplements such as St John’s Wort and 5-HTP have had mixed results, though some studies have found that supplementation improves symptoms such as fatigue, sleep problems, anxiety and lethargy in those with SAD (3,4).
Dietary changes may also help to relieve symptoms. According to Judith Wurtman, Ph.D., co-author of The Serotonin Power Diet, a well-timed snack can help to relieve symptoms. Dr Wurtman led a study looking at the SAD-carb connection, concluding that a low-protein snack providing about 30 grams of carbohydrate was enough to provide a serotonin boost. A warm bowl of leek and potato soup in the evening might well provide that much-needed serotonin-boosting carbohydrate.
The most effective natural intervention, however, is probably light therapy. Light therapy is a non-invasive, natural, effective and well-researched treatment approach for those with SAD. Specially designed light therapy devices mimic the effects of sunlight to regulate levels of melatonin and serotonin. A recent meta-analysis concluded that light therapy works as an effective treatment for SAD no matter what time of day it is used, so long as it is used at least once daily (5). Dawn simulation is especially useful, and studies have found that this approach is more effective in alleviating SAD symptoms that standard bright light therapy or placebo, alongside additional benefits such as less morning drowsiness (6).
Those looking for a natural way to address the winter blues may benefit from the following approach:
1. Ensure that you are getting sufficient amounts of omega-3 and Vitamin D. You can have your levels checked by a nutritional therapist.
2. Exercise regularly. Try a 30-minute run or brisk walk in the daylight.
3. Start the day with a protein-rich breakfast, but try a carbohydrate-rich meal or snack in the evening. Good options are sweet potato, brown rice, lentils, rye bread and butternut squash.
4. Try a light therapy lamp or a dawn simulation device, making time to use the device at least once each day for the best results.
1. Anglin RES et al (2013) Samaan Z, Walter SD and McDonald SD. Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br-J-Psych 2013, 202:100-107.
2. Lespérance F, Frasure-Smith N, St-André E, et al. (2011) The efficacy of Omega-3 supplementation for major depression: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 72:1054-1062.
3. Ghadirian AM et al (1998) Efficacy of light versus tryptophan therapy in seasonal affective disorder. J Affect Disord 50:23-7.
4. Wheatley D. (1999) Hypericum in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Curr Med Red Opin 15:33-7.
5. Golden RN et al (2005) The Efficacy of Light Therapy in the Treatment of Mood Disorders: A Review and Meta-analysis of the Evidence. Am J Psychiatry 162(4):656-62.
6. Avery DH et al (2001) Dawn Simulation and Bright Light in the Treatment of SAD: A Controlled Study. Biol Psychiatry. 50:205-216.
Women with adequate Vitamin D levels are 32% less likely to develop uterine fibroids, according to a new study published in Epidemiology journal this month (1).
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths attached to the uterus, and they normally affect women of childbearing age. Many women with fibroids experience no symptoms at all. In others, fibroids can cause symptoms such as heavy periods, pelvic pain, frequent urination, difficulty emptying the bladder and backache. As a result of these debilitating symptoms, fibroids are one the most common reasons for women to undergo hysterectomy.
Fibroids occur in around 20% of women, but those of African descent have been shown to have a higher incidence of fibroid formation (50-80%). They are a significant concern for women because of the difficult symptoms linked to their growth. In addition, fibroids are a particular concern to women of childbearing age as they can have a negative effect on fertility. They can block the fallopian tubes, affect blood flow to the uterine cavity, change the shape of the uterus and prevent sperm from travelling through the cervix.
In the recent study, led by Donna Baird of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), researchers measured levels of Vitamin D
in 1,036 women between the ages of 35-49. Circulating levels of Vitamin D, also known as 25-hydroxy D, were measured using blood samples. Women with more than 20 nanograms per millilitre were classed as having sufficient levels of the vitamin, although many specialists believe that the minimum level for sufficiency should be higher still.
Study participants also completed a questionnaire on sun exposure. Those who spent more than one hour outside per day had a decreased risk of fibroids, with an estimated reduction of 40 percent. It is interesting to note that fibroids are more common in black women, and that black women also tend to have lower levels of Vitamin D as skin pigmentation reduces the formation of Vitamin D in the skin (2).
Scientists are often quick to point out that “correlation does not imply causation”, meaning that a correlation between two factors does not mean that one causes the other. However in this case the researchers provide evidence of a causal relationship. The researchers noted that treatment of cultures of human uterine fibroid tissue with a form of Vitamin D resulted in decreased cell proliferation accompanied by inhibition of molecular pathways for fibrosis. In other words, Vitamin D was found to play active role in slowing the growth of fibroid tissue.
The study authors conclude that the link between Vitamin D and uterine fibroids warrants further investigation, and it is hoped that these findings will encourage further research in this area. In the meantime, it would be wise for those affected by fibroids to take measures to ensure their Vitamin D levels are sufficient.
1. Baird D et al (2013) Vitamin D and the Risk of Uterine Fibroids. Epidemiology. May 2013. 24:3, 447-453.
2. Harris S (2006) Vitamin D and African Americans. Am Soc Nutr. April 2006. 136:4, 1126-1129.
Healthy eating is one of the most important parts of healthy living. We all try to eat the best quality and the freshest food that we can, but even with our best efforts, sometimes we need to adjust our diets to include supplements.
Introducing Sun Chlorella – once a secret of The Far East, chlorella is now becoming revered in The West as a natural wholefood supplement – good for maintaining optimum health. Simply, Sun Chlorella supplies your body with some of the important nutrition that your body may be lacking.
Chlorella is rich in a variety of nutrients including:
Amongst many benefits, they can help to:
Fight fatigue/combat tiredness
Maintain a healthy immune system
Chlorella is also known to help maintain a normal colonic function
Mix up your smoothies and try blending Sun Chlorella into your favourite smoothie. Add fruits such as a kiwi or fresh mango to give sweetness or even tomato for a more savoury flavour. Just remember – all ingredients should be fresh and raw for maximum nutrients! Here are two fantastic smoothie recipes to get you started:
Savoury Smoothie Recipe No 1:
300ml water, 80g cucumber, 80g spinach, 40g rocket, 15 Sun Chlorella tablets, 20–40g avocado (optional), a pinch of salt (optional), half a clove of garlic (optional), 1–2 teaspoons of lemon juice (optional).
Can also add other greens such as fennel bulb, parsley, pak choi, basil, kale, etc.
1. Place water in blender (liquidiser)
2. Chop all ingredients
3. Add all ingredients and blend until smooth
4. Divide smoothie in to two portions (each portion is about 300mls)
5. Consume half before breakfast and second portion refrigerated or placed in a cold thermos flask to be consumed before lunch
1. Place water in blender (liquidiser)
2. Chop all ingredients
3. Add all ingredients and blend until smooth
4. Consume as part of breakfast and a portion can be refrigerated or placed in a cold thermos flask to be consumed at lunch
Content, recipes & images courtesy of the team at Sun Chlorella.
A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial has suggested that potassium citrate may have significant benefits for bone health (1).
The research involved 201 healthy elderly men and women who received supplements each day for 24 months. All of the adults received a calcium and vitamin D supplement each day. In addition, the adults were given either a daily potassium citrate supplement or a placebo pill.
After 24 months, bone mineral density was measured by x-ray. A special tool was also used to calculate the risk of fracture for each participant.
The researchers suggested that the benefits of the potassium citrate are a result of its alkalinity which helps to prevent calcium loss from bones. The food that we eat determines the pH balance in our bodies. If our diet is acid-forming, then the alkaline mineral calcium is leeched from our bones to restore pH balance. This calcium loss decreases bone mineral density, making bones very vulnerable. Potassium citrate gives the body the resource it needs to keep pH levels balanced without placing stress of the bones. It ensures that the bones are provided with sufficient back-up alkaline which can be stored by the bone ready to be used when alkaline compounds in the blood run short.
The modern diet is believed to have an increasingly acidic load owing to poor food choices. Potassium-rich fruits and vegetables are often overlooked in favour of acid-forming processed red meats, cheddar cheese, sodium, white flour and sugar. Over time, eating an imbalanced diet of excess animal protein, refined grains, sugar, alcohol and salt can cause your body to slip into a state of mild acidosis.
By making small adjustments to your diet, your body can use its mineral stores for building bone, rather than for fighting acidosis. You can shift to a more alkaline diet by making a few simple dietary changes:
Eat more than 5 servings of fruit and vegetables each day
Reduce intake of processed animal products
Replace grains such as wheat and white rice with more alkaline quinoa, millet and buckwheat
Drink water with a little freshly squeezed lemon or lime
Use potatoes, squash and other root vegetables as your energy-giving carbohydrate sources
Eat plenty of spices such as ginger, cinnamon and mustard
1.Jehle S, Hulter HN, Krapf R (2012) Effect of Potassium Citrate on Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Fracture Risk in Healthy Older Adults without Osteoporosis: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Nov 15 (Epub ahead of print)
A recent systematic review provides new evidence that Vitamin D is a ‘promising caries-preventive agent’ and that Vitamin D may reduce the incidence of tooth decay (1).
Tooth decay is a growing concern, particularly among children. A recent study conducted in the UK by toothpaste manufacturer Aquafresh found that almost half of children under the age of 12 have tooth decay. Tooth decay is a preventable disease yet the number of children being admitted for elective extractions of teeth due to caries is increasing yearly.
While the role of Vitamin D in bone health is well known, the evidence base linking Vitamin D and dental health has been less robust until now.
Teeth are made up of similar tissues to that of bone. It makes sense that a vitamin that is so important in bone health will also play a crucial role in the health of teeth. Calcium is constantly moving around the body. Teeth, like bones, are mineralised, (i.e. calcium is deposited in teeth), when calcium levels are sufficient. This mineralisation is essential for strong, healthy teeth. When calcium is in short supply it can be leeched from teeth to make up the shortfall, resulting in weaker teeth prone to cavities and decay. Vitamin D is crucial for the proper absorption and utilisation of calcium, and so any deficiency in Vitamin D is likely to affect calcium levels in teeth.
Vitamin D deficiency has known links to delayed tooth eruption in children, as well as weakened tooth enamel (2). It makes sense that Vitamin D is linked to dental health, and yet until now there has been no comprehensive review of the evidence. “My main goal was to summarize the clinical trial database so that we could take a fresh look at this vitamin D question,” said study leader Dr. Philippe Hujoel of the University of Washington.
Dr. Hujoel’s review was published in this month’s issue of Nutrition Reviews. It examined 24 controlled clinical trials, spanning the 1920s to the 1980s. In total, the data covered around 3,000 children and young adults in several countries including the UK.
Each of the trials used Vitamin D supplemented either through the use of UV light or through dietary supplementation using products such as cod liver oil.
The review indicated that vitamin D was associated with an approximately 50 percent reduction in the incidence of tooth decay. The study authors noted however that many of the trials had weaknesses that could have affected the results.
There is currently a huge amount of interest in Vitamin D levels in the general population. Vitamin D levels appear to be falling in many populations, while levels of tooth decay in children are on the increase. “Whether this is more than just a coincidence is open to debate,” Hujoel said. “In the meantime, pregnant women or young mothers can do little harm by realizing that vitamin D is essential to their offspring’s health. Vitamin D does lead to teeth and bones that are better mineralized.”
Written by Nadia Mason, BSc MBANT NTCC CNHC.
1. Vitamin D and dental caries in controlled clinical trials: systematic review and meta-analysis. (Nutr Rev. Nov 2012) in Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 29 Nov. 2012. Web. 29 Nov. 2012 (http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/253298.php).
2. Misra M et al (2008) Vitamin D Deficiency in Children and Its Management: Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations. Pediatrics Vol. 122 No. 2 August 1, 2008 pp. 398 -417.
Earlier this year I wrote about a study that links vitamin D in pregnancy with children’s body fat levels. Evidence on the importance of vitamin D in pregnancy continues to grow. More recently, a new population-based study has linked expectant mothers’ vitamin D levels with their children’s brain development (1).
The study, to be published this month in Pediatrics, suggests that pregnant women who are deficient in vitamin D are more likely to give birth to children with slower brain development and decreased motor skills.
The Spanish study, a population-based cohort study recruiting 1,820 pregnant women, was conducted between 2003 and 2008. The women had their vitamin D levels measured during their second trimester of pregnancy. Later, their children’s mental development was assessed by trained psychologists.
The data showed that 20% of the women were deficient in vitamin D, and a further 32% had ‘insufficient levels’ of the vitamin. The babies of mothers who were deficient in vitamin D scored lower on mental and psychomotor tests at the age of 14 months when compared to children of women with adequate vitamin D levels.
To ensure that the study was fair, the authors used statistical techniques to account for other variables that could have influenced the children’s development. These included factors such as birth weight, maternal age, social class and mother’s education level, and whether or not the mother drank alcohol or smoked during pregnancy.
The differences in scores were significant, with the children of vitamin D deficient mothers scoring 2.6 points lower on mental tests and 2.3 points lower on psychomotor tests. Study leader Dr Eva Morales notes that a difference of just 4-5 points in these such tests could result in halving the number of children with above-average IQ scores. As a result, Morales believes that these differences in scores ‘might have an important impact at the population level’.
This is not the first study to look at the effect of maternal vitamin D on children’s development. A study published by the same journal in March this year indicated links between maternal vitamin D deficiency and children’s neurodevelopment (2). This study found that low vitamin D levels in the second trimester of pregnancy were linked with language impairment in children at the ages of 5 and 10 years old.
While these studies show a link between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and children’s brain development, they do not prove the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship. Possible reasons for a link include the known role that vitamin D plays in brain function. For example, vitamin D receptors are present throughout the brain, and the vitamin is essential for the formation of neurotrophins, proteins in the brain that help nerve cells to survive and develop.
According to the UK’s National Diet and Nutrition Survey, up to a quarter of people in the UK have low levels of vitamin D in their blood. In its recent statement on vitamin D requirements, the UK Department of Health considers pregnant and breastfeeding women to be an ‘at risk group’. The current recommendation for vitamin D in pregnancy is 10 mcg, or 400 IU, and the UK Department of Health advises that all pregnant women should supplement this amount. As new evidence comes to light regarding the essential role of this vitamin in children’s development, this advice seems more pertinent than ever.
Written by Nadia Mason, BSc MBANT NTCC CNHC
1. Morales et al (2012) Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 in Pregnancy and Infant Neuropsychological Development. Pediatrics. Published online ahead of publication in Sept 2012.
2.Whitehouse A et al (2012) Maternal Serum Vitamin D Levels During Pregnancy and Offspring Neurocognitive Development.Pediatrics Vol. 129 No. 3 pp. 485 -493.
Vitamin D has received a lot of attention both in research and in the media recently, and I recently wrote about the importance of this vitamin for expectant mothers and their children. It is becoming clear that adequate levels of vitamin D are critical at all stages of life. A new study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition suggests that low levels of Vitamin D can increase the risk of death in frail, older adults (1).
The study, which analysed data on 4300 adults over the age of 60, found that inadequate Vitamin D levels increased risk of death from all causes by 30 percent.
‘Frailty’ is defined as a decrease in physical function, marked by symptoms such as slow walking, muscle weakness, low physical activity and unintentional weight loss.
The study found that those who had lower vitamin D levels were more likely to be frail. It also found that frail adults with low levels of vitamin D also had triple the risk of death over people who were not frail and who had higher levels of vitamin D.
The effect of Vitamin D on muscles and bones has indeed been known for some time. When Vitamin D receptors are activated within the cell, this stimulates new protein synthesis which affects muscle growth (2). In fact a prospective study found that Vitamin D supplementation increased the number of fast-twitch muscle fibres and improved muscle function in elderly women with osteoporosis (3). This is particularly interesting as it suggests that the protective effect of Vitamin D on fracture risk is not solely a result of its effect on bone mineral density. It may also be a result of improved muscle strength leading to better physical function and lower numbers of falls.
The study does not prove whether Vitamin D plays a causative role. In other words, it is not clear whether Vitamin D deficiency contributed to frailty, or whether frail adults were more likely to develop the vitamin deficiency because of health problems.
“If you have both, it may not really matter which came first because you are worse off and at greater risk of dying than other older people who are frail and who don’t have low vitamin D,” says study leader Ellen Smit. “This is an important finding because we already know there is a biological basis for this. Vitamin D impacts muscle function and bones, so it makes sense that it plays a big role in frailty.”
The researchers suggest that older adults should be screened for Vitamin D levels, and that they should spend more active time in the sun. A carefully managed diet can also help to boost levels. For example, oily fish such as salmon or mackerel can provide 350iu per serving, so try to include this a couple of times each week. Eggs can help too, with a single egg supplying 20iu of Vitamin D. For elderly people who spend little time outdoors it may be wise to supplement Vitamin D in order to ensure adequate levels, especially during the winter months. Sunlight is of course the best source, and just 20 minutes outdoors between the hours of 10am and 2pm will provide around 400iu of the vitamin.
Written by Nadia Mason, BSc MBANT NTCC CNHC
1. E Smit, C J Crespo, Y Michael, F A Ramirez-Marrero, G R Brodowicz, S Bartlett, R E Andersen (2012) The effect of vitamin D and frailty on mortality among non-institutionalized US older adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2. Boland R. (1986) Role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle function. Endocr Rev 7:434-48.
3. Sorensen OH, Lund B, Saltin B, et al. (1979) Myopathy in bone loss of ageing:Improvement by treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium. Clin Sci (Lond) 56:157-61.
You might have seen that a story broke in the news recently where scientists revealed they found no convincing evidence to suggest that taking vitamin D supplements will fend off a cold. However, the Office of Dietary Supplements confirms that vitamin D does play a role in immune function and there are many studies which suggest a link between vitamin D and flu and respiratory infections.
The first population based study to evaluate and demonstrate an association between blood serum levels and upper respiratory tract infections was published in 2009. Following this, the importance of vitamin D for its immune boosting properties was reported further in 2010, by Danish scientists, who discovered that vitamin D is crucial in activating the body’s immune defences. Findings showed that, without sufficient intake, the T cells, which are responsible for immune health, remain dormant and inactive leaving them unable to react and fight off serious infections in the body.
There have been many other studies. Researchers from University of Colorado, Denver, reported that people with low levels of vitamin D were 40 per cent more likely to have been struck down with a recent respiratory infection.* And a further study, by Japanese doctors, found that the risk of children suffering from influenza could be halved if they take vitamin D. It found that only one in ten children, aged six to 15 years, who took vitamin D came down with flu, compared with one in five given a placebo. Mitsuyoshi Urashimi, the doctor who led the trial, claims that vitamin D was more effective than vaccines in protecting against flu viruses.
Vitamin D comes in many forms, with tablets generally being the most accepted way of gaining this essential vitamin. But tablets are certainly not the only way. Modern diet, increased stress levels and an ageing population means that our digestive efficiency is worsening. This can often mean that tablets aren’t absorbed quite as effectively as they were designed to. An alternative route for administration is the sublingual route. Oral sprays deliver the vitamin under the tongue via the mucous membrane, which is then transported directly into the bloodstream, meaning it doesn’t have to rely on the digestive system for absorption.
Researchers at Cardiff University recently found that more than a third of the BetterYou’s DLux range of vitamin D oral sprays are absorbed immediately into the bloodstream, via the tissue in the cheek and under the tongue.