Tag Archives: inflammatory

Serrapeptase: 5 Main Health Benefits

Serrapeptase, technically called Serratio Peptidase, is a proteolytic enzymes, meaning that it dissolves or digests protein. Serrapeptase was first found in silkworms, as it is this enzyme that silkworms use to dissolve their cocoons. It is now produced as a nutritional supplement through fermentation of plant-grown enzymes.

How does it work?
The reason that serrapeptase has such valuable therapeutic potential is that it dissolves only non-living tissue – tissues that can be a barrier to healing and optimal health. This special enzyme also helps reduce swelling after injury and inhibits the release of chemical messengers that cause pain. Its unique properties have led to a number of studies investigating its therapeutic benefits.

There are five main health benefits associated with serrapeptase:

  1. It is often used for its pain relieving benefits. Serrapeptase decreases pain by blocking the release of bradkinin and other ‘pain messengers’ from inflamed or damaged tissue (1). Because of this it is often used as an alternative to common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) painkillers such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and is especially favoured by those concerned about side effects of long term NSAID usage such as ulcers bleeding in the digestive tract.
  2. Serrapeptase has been studied for its anti-inflammatory benefits (2). The supplement is believed to improve symptoms related to a whole host of inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, migraine and others due to its anti-inflammatory effects.
  3. The supplement is an effective mucolytic, meaning that it thins mucous. It shows promise as a treatment for those with chronic sinusitis (3). Ear, nose and throat problems also involve uncomfortable symptoms linked with increased mucous secretion. Serrapeptase has also been studied as a potential treatment for these conditions (4).
  4. Serrapeptase also appears to play a role in healing injury. The supplement has been used to support post-operative recovery, as well as speeding recovery from sprains and other injuries. For example, in a group of patients undergoing knee surgery, those taking serrapeptase supplements showed a 50% reduction in swelling compared to controls (5). Injured joints, ligaments or muscles are coated with fibrin which works to support the injured tissue while it regenerates. Sometimes excess fibrin can form unwanted scar tissue, inflammation and pain. This fibrin takes up valuable space in which living tissue should grow, reducing the motion of muscles and joints. Therefore by dissolving fibrin, serrapeptase offers potential to enhance recovery after injury.
  5. Because of its ability to dissolve fibrin, serrapeptase has also been used to dissolve arterial plaque, fibrous blockages in clogged or hardened arteries. As serrapeptase only dissolves dead or damaged tissue, this could enable the dissolution of harmful atherosclerotic plaques without causing any harm to the inside of the arteries.
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Serrapeptase may help in supporting injuries and has anti-inflammatory benefits.

Studies of serrapeptase supplementation have found positive benefits with a dosage of around 10mg, taken after meals three times daily. No long-term studies of this supplement have yet been conducted, although studies to date suggest that supplementation for a period of 4 weeks seems safe (1,2).

Although preliminary research looks promising, many of the studies have been small or uncontrolled and much of the supporting evidence is anecdotal (6). Serrapeptase does appear to show promise as an agent for reducing pain and inflammation and support recovery. Clearly more research is needed to determine the role and value of serrapeptase in medicine, though studies to date suggest it has some clinical potential.

References

1. Mazzone A et al (1990) Evaluation of Serratiapeptidase in acute or chronic inflammation of torhinolarygology pathology: a multi-centre, double-blind randomized trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res 18:379-88.

2. Tachibana M, Mizukoshi O, Harada Y, et al (1984) A multi-centre, double-blind study of serrapeptase versus placebo in post-antrotomy buccal swelling. Pharmatherapeutica 3:526-30.

3. Mizukoshi D et al (1982) A double-blind study of Danzen tablets in the treatment of chronic sinusitis. Igaku Ayumi 123:768-778.

4. Mazzonie C et al (1990) Evaluation of serrapeptase in acute or chronic inflammation of otorhinolaryngology pathology: a multicentre, double-blind randomized trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res 18(5):379-388.

5. Esch VP et al (1989) Reduction of postoperative swelling. Objective measurement of swelling in upper ankle joint in treatment with serrapeptase – a prospective study (german) Fortschr Med 107(4):76-8.

6. Bhagat S et al (2013) Serratiopeptidase: a systematic review of the existing evidence. Int J Surg 11(3):209-217.

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The role of omega-3 in heart health

Deaths caused by cardiovascular disease are generally premature and could easily, in some cases, be prevented by making lifestyle changes that include adopting a healthy lifestyle and increasing physical activity.

The role of lipid lowering (cholesterol and triglyceride) in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease is well documented. The cardiovascular benefits of omega-3, certainly in terms of cholesterol and triglyceride management, are probably the most researched of all the dietary nutrients known to influence cardiovascular disease risk. With the recent approval of the use of pure eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a prescription treatment for hypertriglyceridemia [1] and with overwhelming evidence for EPA’s role over docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cholesterol management, [2] consumers should be aware of the differential effects of the two main omega-3s, EPA and DHA, on cardiovascular disease risk factors and why they should choose isolated EPA over generic fish oil.

EPA and lipid management

Whilst fish oil provides a convenient dietary intervention for maintaining heart health, the differential effects of the two main long-chain omega-3s, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on cardiovascular disease risk factors means that not all fish oil products are equal in their action.

Firstly, generic oils generally contain around 30% total omega-3 and are therefore not considered viable as a therapeutic. For example, the optimal triglyceride-lowering doses of omega-3 are 3-4g/day, with little evidence to support lipid-altering efficacy in doses of less than 1g/day. [3] In addition to providing a soluble means for transporting cholesterol and triglycerides through the blood, lipoproteins have cell-targeting signals that direct the lipids they carry to certain tissues.

Pharmepa Step 1: Restore (E-EPA 90) contains the purest ethyl-EPA concentrate available without prescription

Whilst high density lipoproteins (HDL) correlate with better health outcomes, effectively clearing cholesterol from the system, low density lipoproteins (LDL) are, in contrast, considered the cholesterol ‘bad boy’ and are responsible for the detrimental effects associated with total cholesterol.

Both EPA and DHA decrease triglyceride levels, and whilst EPA lowers LDL levels, DHA appears to increase LDL levels [4, 5]. Given that products that contain a mixture of EPA and DHA may increase LDL levels, the benefits of a pure EPA product understandably extend to both cholesterol and triglyceride management. Indeed, the cholesterol-lowering ability of pure EPA at a dose of 1.8 grams in a study of approximately 19,000 statin-treated patients with hypercholesterolaemia was shown to reduce the 5-year cumulative risk of major coronary events by 19%. Igennus’ Pharmepa Step 1: Restore (E-EPA 90) contains the purest ethyl-EPA concentrate available (90%) without prescription, delivers 1g pure EPA in just two easy-to-swallow capsules, and is ideal for those individuals wanting to manage cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

AA to EPA ratio and cardiovascular health

In addition to altering lipid metabolism, omega-3 may also improve cardiovascular health by inhibiting inflammatory products derived from the key pro-inflammatory fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). AA and EPA are converted through phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipooxygenase (LOX) to prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, as well as various hydroxyl-fatty acids, and the AA to EPA ratio provides an established risk factor for numerous inflammatory-related conditions, including poor cardiovascular health. Indeed, inflammation is an important process in the development of cardiovascular disease; chronic inflammation, characterised by elevated plasma levels of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, are commonly found in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, including type2 diabetics and patients with coronary heart disease. [6] Supplementing with EPA, in addition to triglyceride and cholesterol improvement, increases EPA blood levels, improves the AA to EPA ratio (which directly correlates with changes in improved LDL levels) and reduces cardiovascular related inflammation. [7]

In summary, EPA, unlike DHA, lowers levels of triglyceride, lowers ‘bad’ cholesterol and increases ‘good’ cholesterol, whilst reducing inflammation via management of the AA to EPA ratio. By providing pure isolated EPA at the concentrations required for therapeutic outcomes, Igennus’ Pharmepa range of EPA products are ideal health supplements for managing optimal heart health by managing lipid levels and modulating dysregulated inflammation. The prescription-strength ethyl-EPA Pharmepa Restore & MaintainTM  protocol is an innovative two-step treatment programme formulated to re-establish a healthy inflammatory status within the body. Step 1 counteracts an unhealthy AA to EPA ratio – the direct measure of inflammatory status, and step 2 ensures long-term balance for optimal cardiovascular health benefits.

References

1.  Ballantyne CM, Braeckman RA, Soni PN: Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy 2013, 14:1409-1416.

2. Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y, Oikawa S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Itakura H, et al: Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 2007, 369:1090-1098.

3. Pirillo A, Catapano AL: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. International journal of cardiology 2013.

4. Itakura H, Yokoyama M, Matsuzaki M, Saito Y, Origasa H, Ishikawa Y, Oikawa S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Kita T, et al: The change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration is positively related to plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid. Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 2012, 19:673-679.

5. Cottin SC, Sanders TA, Hall WL: The differential effects of EPA and DHA on cardiovascular risk factors. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2011, 70:215-231.

6. Brevetti G, Giugliano G, Brevetti L, Hiatt WR: Inflammation in peripheral artery disease. Circulation 2010, 122:1862-1875.

7. Tani S, Nagao K, Matsumoto M, Hirayama A: Highly Purified Eicosapentaenoic Acid May Increase Low-Density Lipoprotein Particle Size by Improving Triglyceride Metabolism in Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society 2013.

 

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Curcumin may lower diabetes risk

A new randomised, controlled study suggests that taking curcumin supplements may help delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in people at high risk (1).

Curcumin is a natural substance found in the Indian spice turmeric. It has been widely studied for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits.

Curcumin Spices
Spices such as curcumin (from turmeric) could help lower diabetes risk. (5)

Around 7 million people in the UK have ‘ pre-diabetes’ (3). People with pre-diabetes  also known as Impaired Glucose Regulation (IGR), have raised levels of blood sugar, and their cells have started to become resistant to insulin. Without proper care, pre-diabetes can lead to Type 2 diabetes. Some long-term damage may already be happening in the pre-diabetic state, including damage to the circulatory system, the heart and the eyes. For this reason it’s important to take action as soon as possible. Fortunately, the pre-diabetic condition can be reversed naturally with sensible dietary and lifestyle changes.

The randomized, double-blinded, placebo – controlled trial included 240 men and women who had been diagnosed pre-diabetic  All subjects were randomly assigned to receive either curcumin or placebo capsules for 9 months. Those given the curcumin capsules received 6 capsules of 250mg curcumin daily. The researchers recorded changes in insulin resistance and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The function of beta cells, cells in the pancreas that store and release insulin, were also monitored. These measurements were taken at the beginning of the study, and then again and 3, 6 and 9 months.

After nine months, 19 of the 116 participants in the placebo group had developed type 2 diabetes. None of those who took the curcumin capsules developed the disease.

When compared with the placebo group, those who took the curcumin capsules also had better beta cell function, lower levels of insulin resistance, and high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

So how exactly do we explain these results? In recent years, research has helped us to better understand the link between inflammation and diabetes. It seems that inflammation in the body can actually suppress insulin-signalling pathways, making the body less responsive to insulin. A natural anti-inflammatory substance such as curcumin may help to repair this damage and restore these pathways so that they can function normally again.

While the results of this study look promising, more research in this area is certainly needed to confirm these findings. In the meantime, the best strategy to avoid Type 2 diabetes is to follow a healthy diet with regular exercise.

As turmeric powder contains just 3% curcumin (4), the best way to obtain a therapeutic level of curcumin may be through a good quality supplement. Curcumin supplements should not be taken by those on anti-coagulant medications. There is certainly no harm in adding a little colour and spice to your cooking with a daily sprinkle of turmeric. As well as adding spice and colour to curries, turmeric also mixes well with scrambled eggs, lentil soup, tuna salad, and rice dishes. Try also adding a little black pepper, as the piperine in black pepper is believed to enhance absorption of curcumin.

Written by Nadia Mason, BSc MBANT NTCC CNHC

 References

1.  Chuengsamarn et al (2012) Curcumin Extract for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. Published online before print. 6 July 2012.

2. Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H (2007) Curcumin: the Indian solid gold. Adv Exp Med Biol. 595:1-75.

3. ‘Prediabetes – preventing the Type 2 diabetes epidemic’ Diabetes UK 2009

4. Tayyem et al. (2006) Curcumin content of turmeric and curry powders. Nutr Cancer. 55(2):126-31.

5.Image courtesy of nksz 

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