A recent study published in the Journal of Nutrition suggests a link between fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and bone health. It indicates that combining a calcium supplement with FOS is more effective than taking a calcium supplement alone (1).
The two-year study followed 300 post-menopausal women and measured markers of bone health. The women were randomly divided into three groups. One group of women were given a daily calcium supplement, while a second group were given a combination of calcium and FOS . The third group were given a placebo supplement. At the end of the study, measures of bone turnover and bone density were taken.
At the end of the study, there were no significant differences in bone density between any of the three groups. However, the results showed that the combination of FOS and calcium had the greatest effect on bone turnover.
Bone is constantly being broken down and rebuilt. The rate at which this happens is known as ‘bone turnover’ and is a known indicator of bone quality. The change in bone turnover markers in the women taking both FOS and calcium indicates ‘a more favourable bone health profile’ according to the researchers in this study.
FOS seems to enhance calcium absorption in the large intestine, and the researchers suggest that this is the reason for its effect on bone health. These findings certainly support the need for more research in this area, particularly for vulnerable groups such as postmenopausal women.
More about FOS
FOS is a prebiotic nutrient found in plant foods. Prebiotics are not digested, and simply pass through the body. In doing so, they act as ‘food’ for healthy bacteria in the bowel, boosting numbers of health-promoting acidophilus and bifidobacteria, and crowding out disease-causing bacteria. As well as improving calcium absorption, FOS also supports both digestive and immune health.
High concentrations of FOS or prebiotics are found in chicory root, jerusalem artichoke, asparagus, leeks, onion, beans, peas and lentils. FOS can also be taken in supplement form, and its sweet taste means that it works well mixed into oatmeal, yoghurt or smoothies, or simply used as a low-calorie sweetener to enhance flavour.
In the UK, most of us average an intake of around 12g of fibre each day – only half of the recommended amount. More research is still needed in the area of FOS and bone health. In the meantime, increasing fibre intake, and prebiotic foods in particular, seems a sensible measure to ensure the recommended intake for optimal health.
Slevin, M, Allsopp P, Magee M, Bonham V, Naughton J, Strain M, Duffy J, Wallace E, McSorley E. 2014. “Supplementation with Calcium and Short-Chain Fructo-Oligosaccharides Affects Markers of Bone Turnover But Not Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women”. Journal of Nutrition Jan 2014