Category Archives: fish

Fish Oil Supplements

We are often told that we should eat oily fish or take a fish oil supplement, but why? When? Which one do you choose?

Why do you need fish oil?

Although maligned by the weight loss industry, dietary fats exist for a reason. They are present in plant and animal tissue because they perform vital functions for those organisms and, when we consume them, they do the same for us. The body needs to ingest or synthesise a ready supply to maintain health. Some lipids are even essential because they cannot be manufactured by the body and must be obtained through diet. There are many different forms of lipids, one of the most crucial subsets are the essential fatty acids (EFAs), omega-3 and omega-6.

Some anthropologists believe consumption of omega-3 fats lead to profound changes in the human brain. We probably evolved on a 1:1 ratio of omega 3:6 in our diets (1). Post agricultural and industrial revolutions, this has dramatically switched in favour of omega-6 and is now closer to 16:1. Balancing omega-3 and 6 fats is crucial for the management of many chronic diseases. Oils from cold water fish such as salmon, sardines, trout and mackerel have been the subject of thousands of research papers, showing efficacy for a number of conditions. They provide a rich source of the active omega-3 fats, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Vegetarian sources of omega-3 require further conversion in order to metabolise EPA and DHA.

The most obvious way to tackle the shortfall in dietary omega-3 is to consume more oily fish. Individual taste is often a barrier. Furthermore, the beneficial long chain omega-3 fats can be damaged by cooking and the larger fish such as salmon can contain high levels of heavy metals and other contaminants. Therefore fish oil supplementation presents a practical way to increase omega-3 intake, but not all fish oil products are created equally.

When choosing a product it is important to be sure that it has been produced with due regard to environmental impact, has an exemplary quality profile and is effective.

How much do you need?
The omega-3 essential fats, EPA and DHA, are mostly found in oily fish such as sardines and anchovies

To maintain healthy levels of essential fats, the government recommends that we all eat at least two portions of oily fish each week but this can be difficult to achieve through diet alone, especially if you don’t like to eat fish! A good quality fish oil supplement can be a great option to ensure levels are high enough to maintain good health.

How do you know if a supplement is good quality?

Here are a few tips when looking for a good quality fish oil supplement:

  • Look for a fish oil supplement that is produced from small fish such as anchovies and sardines as the levels of essential fats within these fish are naturally more concentrated. You will therefore get better quality oil.
  • Look at where the fish are sourced. Small fish sourced from areas such as the clear pacific waters will drastically minimise the level of pollutants. This will mean you will get cleaner, more pure oil.
  • Look for oil that has had minimal processing. Fatty acids are delicate and can become damaged when put through aggressive production methods. If minimal heat and chemicals are used, the oil will be closer to its natural form.
  • Look for variety. If fish oil is pure and clean, then it can be made into capsules and liquids that have very little fishy aftertaste. Some fish oils can even be mixed with fruit bases so that adults and children can enjoy taking a daily supplement.

References:

1. Simopoulos AP Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega 6/omega 3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 60 (2006) 502-507.

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Ginger may benefit asthma sufferers

Asthma sufferers may benefit from the addition of ginger to their usual medications, a new study suggests.

Asthma is a condition that affects the bronchial tubes which carry air to and from the lungs. In asthma sufferers, the bronchial tubes can become irritated and begin to constrict, making it difficult to breathe. Asthma triggers (such as environmental pollutants) can also create inflammation, causing a build up of mucous in the bronchial tubes. The numbers of asthma sufferers in the UK appears to be on the increase, and worryingly the UK has the highest prevalence of childhood asthma worldwide.

Despite the growing number of asthma sufferers in the UK, there have been few new treatment agents approved for asthma symptoms. Normally, medicines called beta-agonists are used, which work by relaxing the airways, opening them up and helping patients to breathe. In the recent study, however, scientists from Columba University found that certain compounds in ginger help to relax muscle in the airways, increasing the effectiveness of these prescribed medications.

The link between diet and asthma has a solid evidence base, and indeed dietary factors could explain the rising incidence of asthma in the UK. Previous population studies have suggested beneficial effects linked with fresh fruit and vegetables (2), oily fish (3) and full fat dairy products (4). Foods such as margarine and salt, on the other hand, have been linked with an increased risk of asthma and allergy (5-6). Alongside prescribed medications, it would certainly seem sensible for asthma sufferers to consider an anti-inflammatory diet as a supportive health measure.

There is a direct link between ginger and asthma
The link between diet and asthma has a solid evidence base

This particular study, conducted by researchers at Columbia University, tested the effects of ginger on human tissue samples from the airways. The researchers caused the tissue samples to constrict by exposing them to acetylcholine, a compound known to cause constriction in the airways. They then tested the effects of asthma medication isoproterenol alone, and then together with three components of ginger – 6-gingerol, 8-ginerol and 6-shogoal. The tissue responses were then recorded and compared.

The results showed that combining ginger with the isoproterenol rendered the treatment significantly more effective than using isoproterenol alone. Lead author Elizabeth Townsend, PhD, concluded that the ginger compounds “act synergistically with the beta-agonist in relaxing (the airways), indicating that these compounds may provide additional relief of asthma symptoms when used in combination with beta-agonists.”

Although this study shows promise, it is likely to be some time before ginger is approved as an agent in the treatment of asthma. Nevertheless, ginger is a great addition to the diet, and is often used for nausea and digestive support, as well as its anti-inflammatory benefits. Incorporating ginger tea is an easy way of adding this spice into your daily diet. Fresh ginger root works well in stir-fries and vegetable soups. It also freezes well for later use – simply store it in the freezer and grate it from frozen.

References

1. Townsend AE et al (2013) Active Constituents Of Ginger Potentiate β-Agonist-Induced Relaxation Of Airway Smooth Muscle. ATS International Conference. May 2013.

2. Farchi S, Forastiere F, Agabiti N. et al Dietary factors associated with wheezing and allergic rhinitis in children. Eur Respir J 2003. 22772–780.780

3. Hodge L, Salome C, Peat J. et al Consumption of oily fish and childhood asthma risk. Med J Aust 1996. 164137–140.140

4. Wijga A H, Smit H A, Kerkhof M. et al Association of consumption of products containing milk fat with reduced asthma risk in pre‐school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study. Thorax 2003. 58567–572.572.

5. Bolte G, Frye C, Hoelscher B. et al Margarine consumption and allergy in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001. 163277–279.279.

6. Pistelli R, Forastiere F, Corbo G. et al Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children. Eur Respir J 1993. 6517–522.522.

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Five Ways to Fight Inflammation

Inflammation is a natural process and is part of our immune system, helping to heal injury and protect us from infection. Unfortunately inflammation can sometimes get out of control. Modern living appears to encourage chronic low-grade inflammation. For example, when the body is under stress, from poor diet, excess weight, pollution or even simply through ageing, inflammation can be triggered.

Once inflammation is triggered, it can become a chronic problem. Professor William Meggs, chief of toxicology at East Carolina University explains: “Once inflammation begins, it sets off a series of physiologic reactions that cause additional inflammation and the body’s reactions become more and more difficult to turn off” (1).

Conditions such as arthritis, heart disease, periodontal disease, premature ageing, inflammatory skin conditions and allergic reactions are all examples of chronic low grade inflammation. Achieving optimal health means taking measures to control your inflammation risk. Below are some simple dietary guidelines for controlling and reducing levels of inflammation.

1. Aim for 9 servings of fruit and vegetables daily.
Phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables have both anti-inflammatory and antiallergic agents. Studies have found that increased fruit and vegetable intake lowers markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (2). Aim each week to eat at least one of these top inflammation-fighting foods from each of the following categories:

fruit
9 servings of fruit and vegetables can help aid inflammation

Cruciferous vegetables:
Bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, watercress
Leafy green vegetables:
Collards, chard, lettuce, mustard greens, spinach
Legumes:
Black beans, chickpeas, kidney beans, navy beans, peas, pinto beans, soybeans
Berries:
Blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries
Beta-carotene-rich foods:
Apricots, cantaloupe, carrots, mango, pumpkin, sweet potato

2. Increase levels of omega 3.
The best sources of omega-3 are oily fish such as mackerel, salmon, tuna, sturgeon, anchovy, herring, trout, sardines and mullet. Better still, choose those with lower levels of mercury contamination such as sardines, salmon and North Atlantic mackerel.  Fish oil suppresses anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing inflammation (3). Alternatively, fish oil supplements can be added to your diet. If you are vegetarian, you should include a tablespoon of good quality flaxseed oil daily.

3. Decrease levels of omega 6.
While omega-3 has anti-inflammatory effects, omega-6 is usually pro-inflammatory. A good balance between the two is essential for optimal health. Unfortunately the ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 in the modern diet tends to be too high. In the UK, our ratio of omega 6 to 3 is around 20:1 whereas the ideal ratio of omega 6 to 3 is thought to be nearer to 4:1 (4). Limiting processed and fried foods containing vegetable oils and reducing foods high in arachidonic acid, such as red meat, may help to reduce levels of undesirable inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP).

4. Add olive oil to your diet.
Olive oil improves cholesterol levels and contains powerful antioxidants. This oil plays a huge part in the Mediterranean diet, which is linked to longer life expectancy and lower rates of cardiovascular disease. A recent study found that adding just 1.5 tablespoons of olive oil daily for one week reduced levels of LDL cholesterol (5). Try using olive oil as a salad dressing, or substituting the oil for your usual margarine.

5. Watch your AGE.
Highly processed foods and meats cooked at high temperatures are likely to have high levels of Advanced Glycation End products. AGE products increase inflammation, and are caused by prolonged processing such as heating and sterilising. Fortunately there are several ways to reduce AGE products. Cooking using a lower temperature, using moist heat, and adding acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar will help (6). If you are making a stir-fry, the best way to reduce AGE products is to include plenty of vegetables with a small amount of protein. You can also try steaming fish and seafood, simmering chicken in a sauce and braising red meat in liquid.

References

1. Meggs WJ (2003) The Inflammation Cure. New York: McGraw Hill.

2. Root et al (2012) Combined Fruit and Vegetable Intake Is Correlated with Improved Inflammatory and Oxidant Status from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Community Setting Nutrients 4(1): 29–41.

3. Calder PC (2002) Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc Aug;61(3):345-58.

4. Erasmus U (1993) Fats the Heal, Fats That Kill. Canada: Alive Books.

5. Stark AH (2002) Olive oil as a functional food: epidemiology and nutritional approaches. Nutr Rev 60(6):170-176.

6. Urribarri J et al (2010) Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet. J Am Diet Assoc.  Jun;110(6):911-16.e12.

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Raynaud’s Awareness Month

February is Raynaud’s Awareness Month, a campaign aimed at increasing understanding of this debilitating condition amongst the general public. Many sufferers of Raynaud’s are unaware that their condition has a name and do not know that there are therapies available to help.

Raynaud’s Phemomenon (RP) affects somewhere between 3-20% of the population worldwide, with women more commoly affected than men. Raynaud’s is characterised by problems with blood flow to the extremities, causing pain, tingling sensations, numbness or discomfort. These symptoms are most often present in the hands, but can also occur in the toes, ears and nose. During a Raynaud’s episode, the fingers will turn white as blood supply is interrupted. They may then turn blue before blood flow resumes, accompanied by a feeling of burning. Episodes can be triggered by emotional stress or by temperature changes.

Ginkgo Biloba may help combat Reynaud's Disease
Ginkgo has been reported to improve circulation in small blood vessels

There is currently no documented cure for Raynaud’s. However, studies suggest that some nutritional supplements may be useful in relieving symptoms.

The herb ginkgo has been reported to improve the circulation in small blood vessels and reduce pain in people with Raynaud’s disease. In a recent double blind study, Ginkgo supplementation taken over a 10-week period reduced the number of attacks experienced by Raynaud’s sufferers (1).

Essential fatty acids are also reported to be beneficial for those with Raynaud’s. Fish oil has a number of effects that may improve blood circulation. It reduces vascular reactivity and blood viscosity, suggesting that it should help improve blood flow and circulation in Raynaud’s patients. A double-blind study did in fact find that fish oil supplementation improved tolerance to cold and delayed the onset of symptoms. Other studies have found fish oil to be useful in decreasing both frequency and severity of attacks (2). Evening primrose oil has similar vascular effects to that of fish oil, and a small double blind study found it offered similar benefits in Raynaud’s (3).

A form of Vitamin B3 known as inositol hexaniacinate, reduces spasms in the arteries and improves peripheral circulation. For this reason it has been tested as a therapy for Raynaud’s and in larger doses has been found to improve circulation and reduce attacks (4,5). Larger doses of 3-4 grams, like those used in the studies, should only be taken under the supervision of a medical practitioner.

Problems with magnesium metabolism may also factor in Raynaud’s (6). Magnesium deficiency can cause blood vessels to spasm. Ensuring an optimal intake of this mineral helps blood vessels to ‘relax’ and encourages healthy blood flow. The recommended daily intake of magnesium is 300mg for men and 270mg for women, but many adults in the UK fall short. Increasing intake of green, leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds and pulses can boost magnesium levels significantly.

Finally, dietary and lifestyle changes can also help to manage this condition. Smoking, which constricts blood vessels, will aggravate Raynaud’s and so giving up the cigarettes should improve symptoms immensely. Relaxation techniques and stress management are also recommended. Other helpful dietary measures include cutting down caffeine and alcohol, and reducing fatty and fried foods.

If you’d like more information on Raynaud’s you can visit the Raynaud’s & Scleroderma Association website which is dedicated to helping those affected by the condition.

References

1. Muir AH, Robb R, McLaren M, Daly F, Belch JJ (2002) The use of Ginkgo biloba in Raynaud’s disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Vasc. Med 7(4):265-7.

2. DiGiacomo RA et al. (1989) Fish-oil dietary supplementation in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon: a double-blind, controlled, prospective study. Am J Med 68:158–64.

3. Belch JJ, Shaw B, O’Dowd A, et al. (1985) Evening primrose oil (Efamol) in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon: a double-blind study. Thromb Haemost. 54:490-494.

4. Holti G (1979) An experimentally controlled evaluation of the effect of inositol nicotinate upon the digital blood flow in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon. J Int Med Res 7:473–83.

5. Ring EF, Bacon PA. (1977) Quantitative thermographic assessment of inositol nicotinate therapy in Raynaud’s phenomenon. J Int Med Res. 5:217–22.

6. Leppert J, Aberg H, Levin K, et al. (1994) The concentration of magnesium in erythrocytes in female patients with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon; fluctuation with the time of year. Angiology 45:283–8.

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Omega-3 supplements in early infancy may protect against allergies

A recent Australian study provides the first human data showing the benefits of very early postnatal fish oil supplementation in children (1).

The randomised controlled trial, led by Susan Prescott, investigated the effects of fish oil supplements on 420 infants from birth to six months of age. It found that supplementation significantly lowered the allergic response in infants.

Fish Oil for Infants
Products like Igennus Vegepa can be taken by the mother and provided to their infant via breast milk.

Allergies in children are on the rise. In 2004, 39 percent of children were diagnosed with one or more of the allergic conditions asthma, eczema or hayfever. Nobody really knows why allergies are on the increase although factors such as pollution and higher levels of environmental toxins may be partly to blame. Diet may also play a role. Essential fatty acids are important regulators of inflammation and immune response, and so imbalances of these types of fat in the western diet may be partly responsible.

The effects of fish oil supplements during the third trimester of pregnancy have been studied, and benefits include reduced risk of asthma in children. A more recent study has now investigated the effects of fish oil on children’s immune systems during the first 6 months after birth.

In this new study, published in the journal Clinical & Experimental Allergy, each infant was given either a fish oil supplement providing 280 mg of DHA and 100 mg of EPA, or a placebo supplement each day. Signs of allergic response in each infant were then measured at both 6 and 12 months of age.

Blood tests taken at six months of age confirmed that the fish oil group of children had significantly higher levels of EPA and DHA that the control group. Levels of arachidonic acid, an inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid, were also lower in the fish oil group.

The infants who had received the fish oil had significantly lower allergic responses to both dust mites and milk protein. Substances such as interleukin-13, a type of protein involved in allergic responses, were much lower in the fish oil group. Significantly fewer infants in the fish oil group were diagnosed with eczema at 12 months old.

Harry Rice, PhD, Vice President of scientific and regulatory affairs for GOED, the omega-3 trade association, felt positive about the findings. “The present results demonstrating the immunomodulatory properties of EPA and DHA translating into allergy protection suggest that the simple step of supplementation with EPA and DHA in infancy may result in increased quality of life, not to mention decreased health costs, for those afflicted with allergic conditions.”

While there are several pleasant-tasting fish oil supplements formulated for children, few are explicitly recommended for young infants. In fact, the researchers noted that maternal supplementation may be a more efficient way of supplementing breastfed infants who might sometimes reject the capsules through spitting or vomiting. Until further studies have been carried out, the long-term impact of this type of supplementation is not certain. In the meantime, breastfeeding mothers may want to try a good quality fish oil supplement as a nutritional safeguard for their child’s immune health.

Written by Nadia Mason, BSc MBANT NTCC CNHC

References
1. D’Vaz N, Meldrum SJ, Dunstan JA, Lee-Pullen TF, Metcalfe J, Holt BJ, Serralha M, Tulic MK, Mori TA, Prescott SL (2012) Fish oil supplementation in early infancy modulates developing infant immune responses. Clin & Exp Allergy 42:8 pp1206-1216

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An introduction to Igennus

Igennus – Where It All Began…

It’s not always easy to see the positive during a crisis – let alone an opportunity – but this was exactly how the seed of an idea for a specialist nutrition business was planted in the mind of Igennus Healthcare Nutrition’s Founder and CEO, Dr Jav Nazemi.

In 1998, Jav’s family experienced a health scare with their youngest daughter, who was diagnosed with a rare heart condition. This left her with a damaged and narrowed heart valve, which caused blood clots that subsequently caused blind spots in her vision.

Not wanting to rely on lifelong prescriptions of penicillin and aspirin, the family avidly researched how good diet and nutrition could help to manage their daughter’s condition. Jav spoke to Hammersmith clinician Professor Basant Puri (an eminent researcher, author and proponent of nutritional medicine) for advice. Professor Basant was doing research on Fish Oils and getting remarkable results. This was the start of a journey that led to the formation of Igennus Healthcare Nutrition – a company founded on the principles of holistic health and nutritional science.

The  Igennus Family of Products

E-EPA 90E-EPA 90 – Restore Wellbeing – Step 1

E-EPA 90 is the purest ethyl-EPA concentrate available without prescription, suitable for counteracting omega-3 deficiencies and restoring a healthy omega-6 to omega-3 ratio. Research suggests that EPA plays an important role in supporting optimum brain function, including attention, concentration and emotional wellbeing.

Vegepa E-Epa 70Vegepa E-EPA 70 – Maintain Wellbeing – Step 2

Vegepa combines the benefits of 70% ethyl-EPA concentrate extracted from marine anchovy oil with GLA and triterpene antioxidants from organic virgin evening primrose oil. This unique formulation balances and maintains healthy omega-3 and omega-6 levels, providing cells with essential nutrients to support efficient brain function and emotional wellbeing.

Vegepa ChewablesVegepa E-EPA 70 Orange Chewables – From Age 3+

Vegepa Chewables combine the benefits of 70% ethyl-EPA concentrate extracted from marine anchovy oil with GLA and triterpene antioxidants from organic virgin evening primrose oil. This unique formulation balances and maintains healthy omega-3 and omega-6 levels, providing cells with essential nutrients to support brain function, including attention and concentration. These child-friendly capsules are sugar-free, sweetened with natural xylitol and flavoured with sweet orange oil.

EchiomegaEchiomega – Suitable for Vegetarians and Vegans

Echiomega Echium Seed Oil (sourced from Echium plantagineum) provides the richest natural source of the omega-3 SDA, offering support for cardiovascular health and eye function, maintaining anti-inflammatory and immune response, and promoting healthy skin.  Echium Seed Oil offers the highest rate of conversion of any plant-derived omega-rich oil to the important long-chain fatty acid EPA, making Echiomega an ideal supplement for vegetarians and vegans.

Omegaflex DuoOmegaFlex Duo – Replenish & Repair joints and bones

Omegaflex DUO is an advanced multi-action formula for the joints and bones, combining the powerful natural anti-inflammatory properties of ethyl-EPA and GLA with the tissue-restoring properties of glucosamine & bioavailable calcium, vitamins C & D3 and minerals.  These vital nutrients nourish the synovial fluid, support collagen synthesis and form the building blocks for cartilage and bone tissue renewal, as well as offering direct anti-inflammatory support. These natural and synergistic ingredients are highly bioavailable – using a special form of hypoallergenic glucosamine (non-shellfish-derived) and ‘pre-digested’ algae-derived calcium for optimum absorption and utilisation in the body.

Commitment to efficacy, quality and sustainability

Igennus has carved out a specialist expertise in the area of polyunsaturated fatty acids and its relevance to a wide range of health concerns. From the very beginning, Igennus has pioneered the use of pure EPA for preventative and restorative health. Igennus’ lead product Vegepa E-EPA 70 now has a dedicated and loyal following, with thousands of customers taking daily doses of pure EPA for inflammatory conditions and ailments ranging from CFS, psoriasis, arthritis and diabetes to depression, ADHD and schizophrenia.

Research and development are central to the innovation of Igennus’ specialist EPA supplements, which are developed in association with nutrition scientists and independent researchers and clinicians. The provision of efficacious supplements and a relentless focus on quality and safety are key – a company-wide commitment that influences choice of suppliers, raw materials, packaging facilities and even testing labs. All products are independently batch-tested to guarantee safety and are certified free from heavy metals, PCBs and dioxins. Igennus EPA is sourced from sustainable marine anchovies, with minimal impact on biodiversity.

Igennus won’t compromise on using natural ingredients, and avoid artificial colours, flavours, preservatives and sweeteners at all costs – a commitment that has its challenges, but something Igennus is committed to for the long term.

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Fish oil counters the effects of air pollution

A new trial has found evidence that omega-3 supplementation can reduce the harmful effects of air pollution (1).
The randomised, controlled trial, soon to be published in Environmental Health Perspectives, found that fish oil supplements can counter the effects of air pollution, helping to protect city dwellers from heart disease.

It is widely accepted that the air pollution of city living increases the risk of heart disease. In fact, city centre residents are almost twice as likely to develop the first signs of heart disease than people who lived in less polluted urban and rural areas, according to recent research (2).

Air pollution is a complex mixture of noxious gases, liquids and other particles that raise blood pressure, increase coagulation (blood clots), raise levels of inflammation and promote build up of deposits in the arteries.

While air pollution is a concern all year round, the summer months can be particularly troublesome. Air becomes stagnant owing to the longer days, and the increased amount of sunlight and ultraviolet radiation. The sunlight helps to form new, harmful compounds are formed that weren’t there before.

To reflect these city pollutants, the researchers used an ‘air pollution chamber’ filled with ambient fine and ultrafine particles, as well as another ‘clean’ chamber filled with filtered air.

Fish Oil Supplement
Fish Oil Supplements can help counter the effects of Air Pollution.

Twenty-nine healthy, middle-aged participants were given 3g daily of either fish oil or olive oil for four weeks before they entered the chamber. Each participant then spent two hours in the ‘clean’ chamber and the ‘polluted’ chamber. The researchers measured cardiac response before, immediately after and 20 hours after exposure to the pollution. They also measured blood lipids of the participants.

In those who took the placebo olive oil capsules, levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides rose immediately after the exposure to pollution. Levels of LDL and triglycerides are linked with heart disease risk. There was no such response in the fish oil group.

Heart rate variability (HRV) was also measured in each group. HRV simply means the way that heart beat varies. A lower heart rate variability is linked to poorer heart health, whereas the beat of a healthy heart is constantly changing as the body finds the most efficient way to operate. Those in the placebo group showed reduced HRV after pollution exposure, reflecting the harmful effects of their exposure to the pollution chamber. Those in the fish oil group showed no reduction in HRV.

The findings of the study suggest that fish oil supplements may help protect against both the cardiac and lipid effects of air pollution. Although a small study, it does appear to add to the vast weight of evidence for the benefits of omega-3 supplementation. Those of us who live in town and cities might do well to take a regular fish oil supplement for daily protection.

Written by Nadia Mason, BSc MBANT NTCC CNHC

References

1. J. Lambrechtsen, O. Gerke, K. Egstrup, N. P. Sand, B. L. Nørgaard, H. Petersen, H. Mickley, A. C. P. Diederichsen.The relation between coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic subjects and both traditional risk factors and living in the city centre: a DanRisk substudy.Journal of Internal Medicine, 2012; 271 (5): 444

2. Tong H, Rappold AG, Diaz-Sanchez D, Steck SE, Berntsen J, Cascio WE, Devlin RD, Samet JM. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution Induced Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults. Environ Health Perspec. 2012 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]

3. Image courtesy of Tungphoto

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Back To School – Part 2- Healthy Lunch Boxes & Nutritious Snacks

Following on from our last blog on ‘Back to School Children’s Nutrition‘, this time we are looking at some healthy ideas for lunch boxes which can often be somewhat of a headache for busy mums and dads.

Take a look at some of our ideas and try them out this term.

Healthy Sandwich
Add some salad to a sandwich and go for different types of bread such as pitta bread, wraps and baguettes, and always go for wholemeal seeded rather than white bread. (2)

Adding a piece of fruit or two such as an apple, banana, orange, or a handful of grapes to your child’s lunch box is just as easy as adding a bag of crisps or a chocolate bar and no more time consuming.  Try testing out different fruits with your kids especially if yours are particularly fussy to see which ones are for them.  Vary the fruits so that your kids don’t get bored and you can even experiment with trying some unusual fruits such as dragon fruit, passion fruit, star fruit, lychee or any other exotic fruits you can get your hands on.  Kids love these as they are so unusual and intriguing to look at. Also give a thought to growing your own fruit and vegetables as your kids will be dying to try the fruits of their labour.  Getting your kids to squeeze the juice out of fruit to make lollies or blending them to make a smoothie is also a very enjoyable way for your kids to get more of their 5 a day.

According to the School Foods Trust (1) packed lunches should include:

  • Fruit and vegetables (at least one portion of each every day).
  • Meat, fish or other non dairy protein (e.g. lentils, kidney beans, chickpeas, hummus, peanut butter) every day.
  • Oily fish at least once every three weeks.
  • A starchy food such as bread, pasta, rice, couscous, noodles, potatoes or other types of cereal every day.
  • Dairy such as milk, cheese, yoghurt, fromage frais, or custard every day.
  • Drinks: non flavoured water, fruit juice, yoghurt or milk drinks, smoothies.
  • No snacks such as crisps. Instead nuts, seeds, vegetables and fruit (with no added salt, sugar or fat.) are acceptable.  Cakes and biscuits are to be limited and preferred only as part of a balanced meal.
  • No processed items such as dippers and cheese strings etc.

Using this method will help you to come up with ideas for your child’s lunch boxes.  For example you could try different salads such as pasta salad or potato salads with fish (especially oily fish like salmon or mackerel to provide fatty acids which are great for brain function, concentration and learning) or chicken or tinned fish for those wishing for the quick and easy.  Alternatively, beans such as pinto or kidney beans make a great addition to salads and provide both protein and fibre.  Mixing with a little light salad cream or olive oil and balsamic vinegar, makes for a really tasty and easy lunch.  You could even just use some of the left over pasta (especially wholemeal for balanced blood sugar levels) or potatoes from dinner the day before to make the lunches, and even make enough for your lunch too. Add an apple (for fibre, vitamin C and the antioxidant quercetin known to benefit hayfever and lower health risks) and a yoghurt (for dairy to help build strong bones and teeth) to the box and your good to go.

Also, if it has to be a sandwich, then mix it up a bit, add some salad, and go for different types of bread such as pitta, wraps and baguettes, and always go for wholemeal seeded rather than white bread to ensure blood sugar levels are balanced and kids are fuller for longer. The fibre content will also ensure that our kid’s digestive systems are functioning correctly and they are warding off risks of illnesses and diseases.

Pieces Of Apple
Adding a piece of fruit or two to your child’s lunch box is just as easy as adding a bag of crisps or a chocolate bar and no more time consuming. (3)

As kids love to use their hands when they are eating, including dips such as hummus or cottage cheese are fun additions and also a healthy option as they contains lots of vitamins, minerals and amino acids.  Include some vegetables such as chopped carrots (for vitamin A, providing benefits to eyes and skin) and peppers (for vitamin C and beta carotene), or even breadsticks or crackers for dipping and they will have a great time at lunch.

Food enjoyment is an important part of eating especially for children therefore it is worth experimenting with different methods.  Making the foods look appealing or adding a sauce or a dip to the dish are great ways to introduce a new food to their diet.  Once they’ve eaten the particular food a few times, they generally start to enjoy it and you never know you may find them asking for it in their packed lunches rather than you suggesting it to them.

Processed foods such as packaged ready meats, chocolate, crisps, biscuits and cakes should be kept to a minimum throughout the whole family for consistency.  Also, remember that you as a parent are a role model, so try to eat healthy foods in front of them so they can see how much you enjoy them (even if you may not).

It may be a time consuming process getting your child to try and enjoy eating healthy foods but it is definitely worth it for the wide range of health benefits provided.

Written by Lauren Foster

References

1. School Foods Trust (2008) Oldfield Park Infants’ School Packed Lunch Policy and Guidelines (Online):

2. Image courtesy of healingdream.

3. Image courtesy of Ambro.

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Udo’s Choice spotlight part 1 – Top 5 reasons to take Ultimate Oil Blend

Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend is a certified organic blend of unrefined nutritional oils, free of the contaminants and damaged constituents found in processed oils. Its unique formulation will provide you with an excellent source of the unprocessed, readily utilised omega 3 and 6 essential fatty acids that are vital for life.

As part of a low saturated fat, low cholesterol diet these can contribute to improved cardiovascular and general health.

Dr Udo spent considerable time creating Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend, tweaking the ingredients to give the right profile of oils, co-factors, and minor ingredients.  Only Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend is made to his exacting recipe, so beware of imposters with different ingredients claiming the same fatty acid profile & benefits.

In every drop of Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend you will find:

Flax seed oil*, sunflower seed oil*, sesame seed oil*, coconut oil*, evening primrose oil* (13 mg gla/15 ml), soy lecithin, rice bran and rice germ oils, oat bran and oat germ* oils, mixed tocopherols: the oils in this blend supply a range of fatty acids including 2:1:1 ratio of Omega 3, 6 and 9.

 

Udos Choice Ultimate Oil Blend
Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend is a blend of organic seed oils that provide the Essential Fatty Acids Omega 3 and 6 needed for optimal health.

Top 5 reasons to try Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend

1.  Blend

Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend is a blend of organic seed oils that provide the Essential Fatty Acids Omega 3 and 6 needed for optimal health.  They are called essential as our body’s cannot produce them and need to be included in our diet.  Our western diets tend not to have much Omega 3 at all and what Omega 6 we have tends to be damaged by processing or exposure to heat, light or oxygen.  For optimal health it is therefore important that we obtain a source of healthy, undamaged, unprocessed Omega oils.  Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend contains twice as much Omega 3 as 6 to provide a greater quantity of this Essential fat whilst providing an adequate amount of Omega 6 for health.

2.  ‘Foundation’ vs ‘supplement’ oil

Every day through our diet we typically ingest between 75 – 125 g of oil through such things as butters and spreads, cooking oils, processed foods, meats, seeds and nuts.  For optimum health we need to ensure that this daily “foundation” of fats is as healthy and undamaged as possible.  Some people choose to supplement with fish oils and whilst this is fine it is worth noting that this only provides between 1-5 g of oil per day.  Udo’s Oil provides an opportunity to replace some of the damaged, highly processed fats with undamaged, unprocessed essential fats by mixing Udo’s Oil in our foods. In this way whatever we choose to supplement with we are ensuring that our “foundation” is as healthy as possible.

3.  Ratio

The ratio of Omega 3 to 6 is all important.  If our diets have too much of one over the other then we can develop symptoms of Omega 3 or 6 deficiency.  Ideally a ratio inside the body of around 1 to 1 is generally accepted as being optimal.  Whilst the western diet generally has a higher proportion of Omega 6 than 3, both of these tend to be damaged through processing or cooking.  By including Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend which has twice as much Omega 3 as 6 but still provides an adequate amount of healthy, undamaged Omega 6 you can ensure that the ratio inside your body is more like the ideal 1 to 1.

Try Udos Choice in a healthy smoothie
Try blending Udo's Choice Ultimate Oil Blend in a healthy smoothie

4.  Quality

Omega 3 and 6 Essential Fatty Acids are very delicate and susceptible to damage by exposure to heat, light or oxygen.  Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend is manufactured in a heat, light and air free environment and then bottled in dark glass, nitrogen flushed to keep oxygen out, packed in a box and kept in the fridge to provide you with the freshest and most nutritional Omega 3 and 6 oil blend possible.

5.  Ease of use

Udo’s Choice Ultimate Oil Blend can easily be included in your daily diet.  Pour over hot food (never cook with it!), blend it in a smoothie or soup, drizzle over salad or mix it with mashed potato.  The only limit is your imagination.  Read more about healthy smoothie recipes here.

Add a comment below and tell us about your favourite way to take a supplement…

 

 

Written by Udos Choice

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Fish and fish oils may be important for bone health

The long chain omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found in oily fish such as salmon, mackerel, trout and sardines, play an important role in optimal health.  As previously mentioned in my blog posts they are important for our hearts, brain, eyes and may protect against various conditions.  There is also some evidence to suggest that these fatty acids are important for bone health and perhaps prevent against osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

Pharma Nord Bio Fish Oil
A new study has found that fish consumption may protect against bone loss.

A new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1) has found that fish consumption may protect against bone loss.  The study aimed to look at the association between dietary intake of fatty acids and fish and bone mineral density in older adults (average age of 75 years).  The study tracked changes in bone mineral density over a four year period.

The results of the study showed that high intakes of fish, 3 or more servings of fish a week, were associated with maintenance (ie no changes) in bone mineral density in men and women.  The study was only an association study so it does not prove that eating fish can prevent bone loss in old age however, previous studies  have also found that eating a diet rich in fish or having good intakes of the fish oils EPA and DHA, may contribute to a reduced risk of osteoporosis.  It is thought that the fish oils may be working to protect bone through their anti-inflammatory actions.  Inflammation in the body is known to be involved in the process of bone loss.

More evidence and further research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn, however, oily fish has been shown in numerous studies to benefit health so including at least 2 servings a week in the diet is a good idea.   For individuals who don’t regularly eat fish a fish oil supplement rich in DHA and EPA may be worth considering but it is always best to check with a medical doctor prior to starting any new supplement regimen.

A healthy diet is important for strong, healthy bones.  Calcium, vitamin D are well known to be important for healthy bones but there are many other nutrients that are involved in bone strength such as magnesium, zinc, copper, potassium, silicon, manganese, vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin B and phytonutrients – biochemical plant compounds found in fruits and vegetables.  A varied, healthy diet, especially on rich in fruits and vegetables and unprocessed unrefined pulses, beans, nuts/seeds and wholegrains, will provide a huge array of nutrients that may positively impact bone health.  Please read my other posts relating to bone health for more information on how good nutrition may be helpful to keep bones strong.

(1)  Emily K Farina EK et al.  2011.  Protective effects of fish intake and interactive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes on hip bone mineral density in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.  Am J Clin Nutr.  93:1142-1151.

Written by Ani Richardson

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